Dense fire bricks are typically used as linings for kilns, furnaces and boilers because they possess mechanical strength and can be subjected to extreme thermal cycling and thermal shock.
Dense fire bricks also have a high thermal mass which ensures they retain heat and provide excellent energy efficiency. Fire bricks are made by firing a clay based composition until partly vitrified. For specialist applications dense fire brick can also be produced with a glazed finish. Normally fire bricks contain a minimum of 48% alumina depending on the maximum operating temperatures.